What is Digital Marketing
First, let introduce the official definition of what is marketing to fully grasp its application in the context of Digital Marketing.
The official definition of Marketing bestows by The Chartered Institute of Marketing (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 1996-2017) is: “Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.” In addition Girlfridayz argues that marketing is a science as is computer science. In it application and use in the digital word of today.
This special theme section of this article of Computer-Mediated Communication marketing brings together a discussion on Facebook and Twitter these emergent phenomena. Mainly the later part of this article focus on Facebook Rise and it possibility to conduct a strong marketing campaign through the power of analytic. This introductory article delve into social media, its tools and pervasive computing and it capability notwithstanding the mighty king content including global marketplace.
Per definition, Chaffey defined Digital Marketing is the application of the internet and related digital technologies in concurrence with traditional communications to achieve marketing objectives through applying digital technologies (Chaffey, 2012).
Mainly Digital Marketing is the application of marketing strategy and tactic utilising the internet to reach the desired target market, the desired audiences, and the desired ROI (return on investment) via some of the following channels mentioned in this introductory article.
The special themes of this article will distinguish the contrast between Facebook and Twitter — compare what set them apart as social Media platform in term of features, functionality and their ability to conduct effective aggressive marketing strategy and tactic, enabling qualifying lead and the formation of customer relationship through content sharing on relevant topic of discussion forming group of users with like-minded interest allowing the formation of long lasting relationship, customer retention and distinction through social class(Girlfridayz, 2017).
The Rise of Social Media
The Social Media concept is relatively new in term of web-based services, so is Facebook and Twitter. Facebook and Twitter are defined as social network sites that allows individuals to construct a public, semi-public or private profile within a bounded system, allowing the creation of a community populated with users list with whom other users share a connection, viewing each other content, navigate through other user’s connections, sharing interesting topic with their social peer either within a public, semi-public or private context in a cluster of user interest within the system. Bahney state that the nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site (Bahney A, 2006).
Social Network Site (SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic and industry researcher intrigued by their affordance and reach thus enabling Facebook and Twitter to gain traction and achieved a rapid user’s growth and becoming a global phenomenon worldwide. Both platforms share similar characteristics but bare notable differences.
The notable contrast twitter bear is the 140-character restriction and the # notation are twitter main features and it is used to communicate with like-minded users sharing an interesting topic on a subject pertaining to their field, also following an update from celebrities who use the platform to connect with their fan.
In term of Twitter privacy typically offer semi-public setting as when set by a user on their profile their tweet can only be read by other users who are following them. Twitter handle @ allows customers feedback and organisation leverage this facility to respond to their customer query rapidly and access possible lead.
In comparison, Facebook is used by users who wish to stay connected with users they know offline and rekindle friendship or family ties. The ability to write a long note and send a private message are Facebook main features .
In term of privacy, Facebook allows the user to set their profile visibility by friend only, private or “custom” setting. The Facebook message allows customers feedback and presents a perfect way to respond privately to customer’s query rapidly and acquiring leads. Customers expect an excellent customer service and expect fast responses to their request and both platforms provide this facility.
The Early years
Facebook began in early 2004 as Harvard-only SNS community (Cassidy, 2006), together with these open services Flickr, Piczo, Mixi, while other SNSs launched to support niche demographics before expanding to a broader audience. In the early years to join Facebook user needed to have havard.edu email address.
Facebook expanding is niche communities to other schools with the only requirement that user also has a university email address associated with these institutions. Hence making the site relatively close shaping the perception of user’s that the site as an intimate private community.
In September 2005 Facebook expanded is niche to include high school students, professionals inside corporate networks, and, eventually, everyone. However, the change to open signup did not mean that users in closed networks—gaining access to corporate networks still required the appropriate .com address, and access to high school networks required administrator approval (Cassidy, 2006).
Facebook unique features are the ability for outside developers to build “Applications” which allows users to personalise their profiles and perform other tasks such as building gaming application and compare movies preferences — Facebook users are unable to make their full profiles public to all users. Nowadays everyone signup and log in with a valid email address to access Facebook SNS network site.
User growth is an integrated part of Facebook marketing strategy and one of their main objectives to attract global users and target a different type of customers in the market to whom Facebook can provide their services and increase profitability.
The diagram above depicts the early year's rise of Facebook exponential user growth from its creation to 2012. Currently, there are no reliable data relating to how many people worldwide using Facebook SNS platform, although marketing research indicates that Facebook is growing in popularity worldwide(comScore, 2007). Facebook exponential growth prompted many corporations to invest time and money in creating, promoting and advertising Facebook SNS.
From a close neat community network site to an open door community network site Facebook attracted negative criticising. On the flip side of Facebook growth other companies are prohibiting employees from using Facebook while the U.S Congress has proposed legislation to ban youth from accessing SNS notwithstanding Facebook in school and libraries (H.R. 5319, 2006; S.49, 2007) due to the privacy issues the SNS sites present and the ease of leakage of users data in attackers hand such as impersonating another user profile and promoting themselves as the original owner of the account, or create fake profile in order to defraud or disguise themselves to commit crime undetected.
Twitter community expand to everyone and still remain the playground of celebrities but on the other hand, with their semi-public setting, the diagram show a damping ratio of user growth oscillation probably due to the 140-character restriction and the lack of privacy(Girlfridayz, 2017).
Facebook insight allows the organisations to measure all relevant metric and those of their competitors. Detailed users statistical data are offered to the organisation and take an integral part in optimising page content, viewing competitor data and content to capitalise on their effort and achieve the desired ROI within the said organisation. Facebook analytic content marketing analysis enable organisations as prerequisites for maintaining user growth and creating wider reach awareness to convert fans and followers into loyal customers, analyse their Facebook user content and the interactions generated from their posts.
Many developers have jumped on Facebook analytic power to access user data interaction and created social media analytic tools to facilitate data harness capture to analyse the data gathered and optimise user page content to acquire leads and user growth.
As Quintly diagram illustrate Facebook analysis offers interaction metrics and tracking abilities in a wide range of metric and feedback meaning that business users are able to communicate directly by likes, share, comment and reaction to effectively quantify the organisation marketing effort on Facebook.
Girlfridayz argues that Social Media Tools provide an ease of interaction for organisation managing several Facebook profiles to view all metrics analytics from various Facebook pages and keep data gathered in one place (Girlfridayz, 2017).
These Social Media tools features enable a birds eye view of all data gathered from various Facebook profiles pages and compile a report on interaction marketing data gathered from all profiles of an organisation to optimise and capitalise on finding to build a strong marketing campaign to acquire lead and customers retention.
Facebook insight enable post targeting by location, demography, organisation type and interest based on “like and dislike” and business pages created, content posted, topic shared and commented upon.
Facebook insight customer care efforts offer measuring response times to users questions and other sensitive requests are today issues as an organisation using social media tools can found out the response times, distribution channel and view recognised users questions enabling the said organisation to measure their own Facebook support performance as well as their competitors. Social media analytics for all major networks can be found within one tool: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google +, LinkedIn and Instagram expanding the networking capabilities to optimise an organisation social media marketing efforts.
Social media marketing offers a vast opportunity to engage with potentials buyers, across the entire customer lifecycle, on the platforms, who are actively using it for information as it almost universally used by consumers and brands. It embodied the 4P, 7P and 4C of the traditional marketing mix. Traditional marketing values, strategy and tactics are used in today world and has been digitalised to adapt to social media information gathering and achieved a marketing online presence as well as marketing offline presence which has led to enter the Digital Age.
A global social phenomenon as led us to enter the digital age and social Media is one of the most effective channels to connect with like-minded user interest as well as email marketing and with the explosion of smart mobile phone loaded with apps (application) to reach more connection through handheld devices via app usage as set new trend for people to use Worldwide, hence another platform to leverage for brand, the UX responses design capability of app as made easy smart app development and screen resolution fitting.
Elseviser journal on Pervasive and Mobile Computing state that: “Pervasive computing, often synonymous called ubiquitous computing”. An emerging field of research that bring revolutionary paradigms for computing models in the 21st century. Tremendous development in wireless communications, networking, mobile computing, handheld devices, embedded systems, wearable computers and the like have led to the evolution of pervasive computing platforms as natural successors of mobile computing systems.
Pervasive computing aiming to create ambient intelligence network where embedded network devices in the environment provide unobstructed connectivity and services at all time, thus improving human experience and quality of life without explicit awareness of underlying technology powering the device communication capabilities. In this atmosphere, the world around us is interconnected (e.g., key chains, computers, appliances, cars, homes, coffee mugs. Cities and the human body) as pervasive network of intelligent devices that cooperatively and autonomously collect, process and transport information to adapt to the associated context and activity of our everyday life.
Pervasive mobile computing in term of marketing capacity for online retailer industry is immense as the unobstructed connectivity allows organisation to remain connected with potential buyers and provide quick and easy services or product to existing customers. The user advantage is faster responses to queries and access to information to shape responses appropriately to consumer needs, perception and expectations.
Module, tripwire, lead magnet, and online display advertising provide brand with an opportunity to post message in network communities of interest to pull the consumer of their products or services to acquire what on offer at the right price — using the irresistible offer process to captive user’s attention to come to a place or participate in a venture by offering something of interest or advantage to the user which ultimately fulfilled immediate consumer need via network download capability, online purchase of information, goods or services through a click of a button, wireless tap or with bitcoin, a type of digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank has become a thought after commodity among speculators as a unit of bitcoin can be used for online transactions between consumer.
Bitcoin is digital money available almost worldwide for user who which to use it has made the purchase of some information, good and service easy as an invisible money transaction in bytes is operating at the back of this computing process.
Mobile handheld devices when used to their full potential can boost productivity, mobility of the said organisation, also boost the safety and morale of the workforce, improve customers service and supplier relationship and offer a remote work flexibility.
Handheld devices as well as wearable computing (e.g., Smartwatch) offers the possibility for an organisation to remain in contact with their offices and employees within the designated hourly contracted time providing greater reach and connective possibilities via apps usage such as What App, Facebook Message, Skype and countless other mobile app provider with connective possibility either voice, video or message with added extra such as uploading and sending information via handheld mobile devices and even typing document to be send through mobile app.
Cloud storage are accessible via mobile devices enabling information to be retrieved easily and read online or downloaded on handheld device for safe keeping. The wireless cloud printing capability offer greater possibility to the said organisation if wireless printers are connected in their office to send information to printer for printing directly from handheld device, hence for an organisation to remain in constant contact with their office and information can be share across teams in an instant is a vital addition to everyday business in today world to close important deal or provide further information required urgently for service provision or sharing sensitive information safely and securely.
Location Location Location
Digital marketing Geo-marketing in it application present itself as discipline within marketing analysis which using the geographic and Geo-location in the process of the said organisation planning and implementation of marketing activity using the marketing mix 4 criterion Product, Place, Promotion, Price.
In a form of digital mapping though the association of data gather with these maps using place-based component computing models which offer the organisation the possibility to research geographic parameters, including data sampling, collection, analysis and presentation. As per Girlfridayz definition GEO-marketing relate to routeing, territorial planning and site selecting where the location is the key factor which determine the core of Geo-targeting.
Digital marketing is location base–greater location can be accessed within networked link of users connect and permit the creation of smaller location niche where the said organisation can concentrate their effort thus enabling marketing segmentation of accessible market where the said organisation can perform to their advantages as well as viewing competitor data.
The ability to pinpoint the location of users connect network allows the said organisation to focus effectively on targeting the right prospect for their products or services removing the chances of accessing uninterested users connected to the network and permitting aggressive marketing effective strategy and tactic to take place by Geo-targeting interested users in their products or services hence achieving greater ROI and profitability.
Promote and conquer
In term of connectivity and accessibility to leverage the right customers for the said organisation Facebook present itself as a better fit than twitter as it offers the possibility through it analytic to includes or excluded demographic area in term of Geo-marketing and targeting hence enabling precise targeting for an organisation to access the right user for their product or services hence offering organisation selective distribution.
The budget aspect Facebook offers to user within its advertising service provision is affordable to the said organisation as a choice enable budget is provided for £1 a post can be send public to like-minded connection of interest and bare the subtitle promoted. The menial amount of monies paid equate to a day — relatively if the said organisation desire to boost their reach further afield a £7 equate to 7 days whereby the said organisation post is promoted within these promotional days. The post content and targeting can be updated before promotion end as well as increasing the said organisation budget for that post.
The fact that Facebook reach is wider than twitter and for everybody with a private, public and semi-public setting the said organisation as more chance to find user interested in their products or services at an affordable promoted price.
In term of an organisation wanted selective or exclusive distribution and targeting high-end potential customers or celebrities — Twitter present itself as a good fit for this purpose as in social term Twitter is for the richer side of society hence their advertising budget prices equate to their social status as a bare-minimum a promoted twitter card cost the said organisation £10 to be sent across Twitter public network with the subtitled promoted twit. Should the said organisation desire to promote a twitter list in their semi-public setting the cost ranges into thousands of Pounds.
Both platforms provide result of promotional effort to gain user awareness to their products or services through details analytics discuss above. As well as promotional performance, can be view on social media analytic but also combining Google analytic result can greater boost the reach of user by the said organisation by viewing precise data and timing of reach and viewing of a particular in-page content or product and services access or purchase can provide the said organisation with invaluable data to continue their promotional effort or change Geo-targeting direction or end the lifecycle of a product.
The Mighty king Content
Marketing and corporate communications are the main persuasive element the said organisation can use to connect with its markets by communicating ideas and seeking to impart on perceptions of brands, products and services to customers, consumers and stakeholders. The increasingly wider variety of content communicated and promotional tools together with the modern-day array of online and offline channels and media forms can widely disseminate messages to connected users network.
Traditionally the literature distinguishes between two types of communication tools: the former related to mass or conventional media, while the latter involves communication tools in non-conventional media method.
Nowadays the ‘line’ mentioned above could be consider as irrelevant as these tools have been developed separately and in practice could lead to uncoordinated implementation, this may not directly lead to contradictory content type mediated communication. However, a lack of strategic appreciation of content type-style of communication is evident and this may be a key barrier in achieving desired synergies to leverage stakeholder relationships in terms of brand equity and financial performance.
In this introductory article, the concept of integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) has emerged since mid-1990’s it has come to the fore and attracted considerable attention to the literature. Calidad De Revista Journal state that in 1964 McCarthy’s 4Ps model simplified the Borden’s marketing mix by reducing the initial twelve elements to only four variables that represent instructional guidelines for most marketing courses.
Marketing content-mediated communication evolved from a logic focused on transactions and products to being focused upon the development of long-term relationship and the underlying improvement of resources and competencies to create and sustain customer value.
Content communication traditional approach and functionality is to manage from the functional perspective with a clear aim of persuasion in your communicated content-written-style to attract consumer to products or services.
In this case Persuasion tend to be one-way and is identified with transactional marketing approach-to inform, persuade and remind which tend to be passive. However, a relational approach to content communication is a wider-concept that goes beyond persuasion and aim to build a dialogue with users, stakeholders and consumers in the attempt to achieve three main strategical active objectives to inform, listen, and respond. This dialogue, if pursue lead to increased organisational brand value.
Duncan and Moriarty observed that many marketing roles, especially in the service sector, essentially consist of positions in which communication represents the central element of marketing activities. Per these authors perspective, communication is not only generated by marketing activities, but is a key element located at the very core of all company functions (under the slogan “you cannot not communicate”).
Schultz and Schultz consider that the planning, development and implementation of marketing programs should be approached in a different and new way. Per these authors, such an approach concerns the integration of a wide range of activities and functions that influence and impact upon dynamic information flows between an organisation and its stakeholders.
In today world most marketing professionals are changing their approaches due to dramatic alterations that are currently affecting markets, consumers/clients, technologies, media and the ability to collect, manipulate and store data. The current technological turbulence is driving the need and demand for integration.
Furthermore, Don Schultz, in his work titled “The Inevitability of Integrated Communications”, considered that “the question of integration or not is moot” because consumers integrate all messages received from an organisation. Thus, even if the organisation has transmitted uncoordinated messages to the same consumer, that consumer will aggregate and integrate those messages according to some pattern. Unfortunately, in some cases, the criteria chosen by the consumer to make such integration can harm the organisation and associated brand value.
Hence the company must be able to manage the process per its own interests and strategic purposes. In this saturated market environment, characterised by an increasingly high competition, a new synergistic approach is needed and IMC represents an alternative approach that can replace traditional marketing approaches focused on transactions as it is based on a consumer-oriented perspective and it is focused on a relationship marketing approach based on communication and content-mediated-style distribution over the internet shared on social platform and email marketing.
The European Journal of International Laws argue that the concept of Global administrative laws begins from the twin ideas that much global governance can be comprehend as administrative and as such it is often organised and shaped by principals of an administrative law character, meaning that many administrative and regulatory functions are now performed in a global governance rather than national context.
Yet through a significant number of different forms, ranging from binding decisions of international organisations to non-binding agreements in intergovernmental networks and to domestic administrative action in the context of global regimes (European Journal of International Laws 2006).
An example of this twin idea concept includes notwithstanding other domestic administrative decisions on market access of foreign products as part of the WTO regime and regulatory functions in global governance are also performed outside such formally public, governmental structures, namely by hybrid private-public or purely private institutions, such as ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, or the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) notwithstanding internet crime and money laundering.
Setting up in foreign lands
Should the said organisation decide to cross border to provide their product or service the law of the land apply. The global marketplace and today digital advertising and video marketing make it easy for almost any business to seek new consumer connective to purchase their products or services. In doing so the said organisation would need to evaluate international markets and which practical and cultural issues they may face and adapt to the chosen country to integrate communication correctly within the country of choice.
The said organisation would need to look at search traffic, competition and pricing to get a clear concept of potential market, using search trend reports, geography, Geo-targeting, and Geo-location data pertaining to the said organisation website analytic and competitor, use marketing insight tool to aid shaping decision on which marketplace to start expanding connective reach.
In-page-content would need to be translated and localised in the native thong to bridge the gap in language barrier and get insight on how to communicate and market to customers and prospects without losing any content in translation. Most translator tool are 100% inaccurate it would be best for the said organisation international integration communication content to use a native speaker of the country of choice.
For Infrastructure and systems the said organisation would need to consider the system needed to properly support them expanding into international markets and consider potential issues with packaging for fragile goods, VAT, international fees and any legal or regulatory issues, revision of e-commerce processes and payment solutions. Although many e-commerce systems enable set up of multinational transactions, customising payment options and other setting is needed for greater integration within the country of choice.
The said organisation would need to be ready to communicate and support customers and prospects from different cultures and language — strategically plan new customer service needs and shape their responses appropriately to any query the local customers may have. Hence mapping out planning process in advance set the stage for successful integration and not moot content communication.
Peak a boo and view what hot
Technology advancement in video has immensely improved and streaming video to watch is much faster in today world. The increased quality of viewing and sharpness of pixel has brought about HD (High Definition) video which mean clearer picture quality for viewer and a great advantage for the said organisation to showcase their products or services to connected like-minded viewer.
Hence video marketing exploded and short promotional commercial can be embedded with the video for people to view and access the said organisation by clicking on the promotional display via a link. Video marketing gain traction and has become a hot commodity amongst businesses to leverage potential prospect or customers.
the said organisation organisation could possibly use the facility of video marketing to boost user growth and increase profit as with a fast internet connection and the right app and setting the said organisation could leverage live video feed and save the video on their website, share it across a public, semi-public or private network of connected users on social media platform within a bounded system with a click of button and peek a boo and view what hot on this bounded system of like-minded user connect.
Digital Marketing done to its fullest using traditional marketing strategy and planning combine can yield greater result for any businesses using the right social media platform to connect to user interested in their product or services can increase productivity and profitability greatly reduce the need for lengthy marketing tasks such as segmentation and research processes to half the time it used to take.
Positioning and location base are easier to set up and access through a well plan and built website where the said organisation can thrive. Faster response to customer query and long lasting relationship formation can take place as well as selective or exclusive distribution.
"The global marketplace and digital advertising made easy international connective set up and ubiquitous computing and integrated Marketing communication has made what was thought impossible today reality and lead us to enter the digital age." Girlfridayz 2017